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Linux下模拟ping命令的C代码实现

2018年07月16日 ⁄ 综合 ⁄ 共 5308字 ⁄ 字号 评论关闭
/********************************************************
 *	IP报头格式数据结构定义在<netinet/ip.h>中	*
 *	ICMP数据结构定义在<netinet/ip_icmp.h>中		*
 *	套接字地址数据结构定义在<netinet/in.h>中	*
 ********************************************************/

#include <stdio.h>
#include <stdlib.h>
#include <signal.h>
#include <arpa/inet.h>
#include <sys/types.h>
#include <sys/socket.h>
#include <unistd.h>
#include <netinet/in.h>
#include <netinet/ip.h>
#include <netinet/ip_icmp.h>
#include <netdb.h>
#include <setjmp.h>
#include <errno.h>

#define	PACKET_SIZE	4096
#define	MAX_WAIT_TIME	5
#define	MAX_NO_PACKETS	10000


char *addr[];
char sendpacket[PACKET_SIZE];
char recvpacket[PACKET_SIZE];
int sockfd,datalen = 56;
int nsend = 0, nreceived = 0;
double temp_rtt[MAX_NO_PACKETS];
double all_time = 0;
double min = 0;
double max = 0;
double avg = 0;
double mdev = 0;

struct sockaddr_in dest_addr;
struct sockaddr_in from;
struct timeval tvrecv;
pid_t pid;

void statistics(int sig);
void send_packet(void);
void recv_packet(void);
void computer_rtt(void);
void tv_sub(struct timeval *out,struct timeval *in);
int pack(int pack_no);
int unpack(char *buf,int len);
unsigned short cal_checksum(unsigned short *addr,int len);

/*计算rtt最小、大值,平均值,算术平均数差*/
void computer_rtt()
{
	double sum_avg = 0;
	int i;
	min = max = temp_rtt[0];
	avg = all_time/nreceived;

	for(i=0; i<nreceived; i++){
		if(temp_rtt[i] < min)
			min = temp_rtt[i];
		else if(temp_rtt[i] > max)
			max = temp_rtt[i];

		if((temp_rtt[i]-avg) < 0)
			sum_avg += avg - temp_rtt[i];
		else
			sum_avg += temp_rtt[i] - avg; 
		}
	mdev = sum_avg/nreceived;
}

/****统计数据函数****/
void statistics(int sig)
{
	computer_rtt();		//计算rtt
	printf("\n------ %s ping statistics ------\n",addr[0]);
	printf("%d packets transmitted,%d received,%d%% packet loss,time %.f ms\n",
		nsend,nreceived,(nsend-nreceived)/nsend*100,all_time);
	printf("rtt min/avg/max/mdev = %.3f/%.3f/%.3f/%.3f ms\n",
		min,avg,max,mdev);
	close(sockfd);
	exit(1);
}

/****检验和算法****/
unsigned short cal_chksum(unsigned short *addr,int len)
{
	int nleft = len;
	int sum = 0;
	unsigned short *w = addr;
	unsigned short check_sum = 0;

	while(nleft>1)		//ICMP包头以字(2字节)为单位累加
	{
		sum += *w++;
		nleft -= 2;
	}

	if(nleft == 1)		//ICMP为奇数字节时,转换最后一个字节,继续累加
	{
		*(unsigned char *)(&check_sum) = *(unsigned char *)w;
		sum += check_sum;
	}
	sum = (sum >> 16) + (sum & 0xFFFF);
	sum += (sum >> 16);
	check_sum = ~sum;	//取反得到校验和
	return check_sum;
}

/*设置ICMP报头*/
int pack(int pack_no)
{
	int i,packsize;
	struct icmp *icmp;
	struct timeval *tval;
	icmp = (struct icmp*)sendpacket;
	icmp->icmp_type = ICMP_ECHO;	//ICMP_ECHO类型的类型号为0
	icmp->icmp_code = 0;
	icmp->icmp_cksum = 0;
	icmp->icmp_seq = pack_no;	//发送的数据报编号
	icmp->icmp_id = pid;

	packsize = 8 + datalen;		//数据报大小为64字节
	tval = (struct timeval *)icmp->icmp_data;
	gettimeofday(tval,NULL);		//记录发送时间
	//校验算法
	icmp->icmp_cksum =  cal_chksum((unsigned short *)icmp,packsize);	
	return packsize;
}

/****发送三个ICMP报文****/
void send_packet()
{
	int packetsize;
	if(nsend < MAX_NO_PACKETS)
	{
		nsend++;
		packetsize = pack(nsend);	//设置ICMP报头
		//发送数据报
		if(sendto(sockfd,sendpacket,packetsize,0,
			(struct sockaddr *)&dest_addr,sizeof(dest_addr)) < 0)
		{
			perror("sendto error");
		}
	}

}


/****接受所有ICMP报文****/
void recv_packet()
{
	int n,fromlen;
	extern int error;
	fromlen = sizeof(from);
	if(nreceived < nsend)
	{	
		//接收数据报
		if((n = recvfrom(sockfd,recvpacket,sizeof(recvpacket),0,
			(struct sockaddr *)&from,&fromlen)) < 0)
		{
			perror("recvfrom error");
		}
		gettimeofday(&tvrecv,NULL);		//记录接收时间
		unpack(recvpacket,n);		//剥去ICMP报头
		nreceived++;
	}
}


/******剥去ICMP报头******/
int unpack(char *buf,int len)
{
	int i;
	int iphdrlen;		//ip头长度
	struct ip *ip;
	struct icmp *icmp;
	struct timeval *tvsend;
	double rtt;


	ip = (struct ip *)buf;
	iphdrlen = ip->ip_hl << 2;	//求IP报文头长度,即IP报头长度乘4
	icmp = (struct icmp *)(buf + iphdrlen);	//越过IP头,指向ICMP报头
	len -= iphdrlen;	//ICMP报头及数据报的总长度
	if(len < 8)		//小于ICMP报头的长度则不合理
	{
		printf("ICMP packet\'s length is less than 8\n");
		return -1;
	}
	//确保所接收的是所发的ICMP的回应
	if((icmp->icmp_type == ICMP_ECHOREPLY) && (icmp->icmp_id == pid))
	{
		tvsend = (struct timeval *)icmp->icmp_data;
		tv_sub(&tvrecv,tvsend);	//接收和发送的时间差
		//以毫秒为单位计算rtt
		rtt = tvrecv.tv_sec*1000 + tvrecv.tv_usec/1000;
		temp_rtt[nreceived] = rtt;
		all_time += rtt;	//总时间
		//显示相关的信息
		printf("%d bytes from %s: icmp_seq=%u ttl=%d time=%.1f ms\n",
				len,inet_ntoa(from.sin_addr),
				icmp->icmp_seq,ip->ip_ttl,rtt);
	}
	else return -1;
}


//两个timeval相减
void tv_sub(struct timeval *recvtime,struct timeval *sendtime)
{
	long sec = recvtime->tv_sec - sendtime->tv_sec;
	long usec = recvtime->tv_usec - sendtime->tv_usec;
	if(usec >= 0){
		recvtime->tv_sec = sec;
		recvtime->tv_usec = usec;
	}else{
		recvtime->tv_sec = sec - 1;
		recvtime->tv_usec = -usec;
	}
}

/*主函数*/
main(int argc,char *argv[])
{
	struct hostent *host;
	struct protoent *protocol;
	unsigned long inaddr = 0;
//	int waittime = MAX_WAIT_TIME;
	int size = 50 * 1024;
	addr[0] = argv[1];
	//参数小于两个
	if(argc < 2)		
	{
		printf("usage:%s hostname/IP address\n",argv[0]);
		exit(1);
	}
	//不是ICMP协议
	if((protocol = getprotobyname("icmp")) == NULL)
	{
		perror("getprotobyname");
		exit(1);
	}

	//生成使用ICMP的原始套接字,只有root才能生成
	if((sockfd = socket(AF_INET,SOCK_RAW,protocol->p_proto)) < 0)
	{
		perror("socket error");
		exit(1);
	}

	//回收root权限,设置当前权限
	setuid(getuid());

	/*扩大套接字的接收缓存区导50K,这样做是为了减小接收缓存区溢出的
	  可能性,若无意中ping一个广播地址或多播地址,将会引来大量的应答*/
	setsockopt(sockfd,SOL_SOCKET,SO_RCVBUF,&size,sizeof(size));
	bzero(&dest_addr,sizeof(dest_addr));	//初始化
	dest_addr.sin_family = AF_INET;		//套接字域是AF_INET(网络套接字)

	//判断主机名是否是IP地址
	if(inet_addr(argv[1]) == INADDR_NONE)
	{
		if((host = gethostbyname(argv[1])) == NULL)	//是主机名
		{
			perror("gethostbyname error");
			exit(1);
		}
		memcpy((char *)&dest_addr.sin_addr,host->h_addr,host->h_length);
	}
	else{ //是IP 地址
		dest_addr.sin_addr.s_addr = inet_addr(argv[1]);
	}
	pid = getpid();
	printf("PING %s(%s):%d bytes of data.\n",argv[1],
			inet_ntoa(dest_addr.sin_addr),datalen);

	//当按下ctrl+c时发出中断信号,并开始执行统计函数
	signal(SIGINT,statistics);	
	while(nsend < MAX_NO_PACKETS){
		sleep(1);		//每隔一秒发送一个ICMP报文
		send_packet();		//发送ICMP报文
		recv_packet();		//接收ICMP报文
	}
	return 0;
}

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