现在的位置: 首页 > 编程语言 > 正文

Java生成图片验证码3种方法(字母、加减乘除、中文)

2020年02月13日 编程语言 ⁄ 共 17577字 ⁄ 字号 评论关闭

第一种方法 全是字母和数字组成

package com.myFirstSpring.util; import java.awt.Color;import java.awt.Font;import java.awt.Graphics;import java.awt.image.BufferedImage;import java.io.IOException;import java.util.Random; import javax.imageio.ImageIO;import javax.servlet.ServletException;import javax.servlet.ServletOutputStream;import javax.servlet.http.HttpServlet;import javax.servlet.http.HttpServletRequest;import javax.servlet.http.HttpServletResponse; /** * * @Description 生成验证码 * @author waa * @version V1.0, 日期2011-7-4 */public class ValidateCodeUtils extends HttpServlet { private static final long serialVersionUID = -1409007752285164213L; private static int width = 75; private static int height = 35; // private static char[] ch = // "AaBbCcDdEeFfGgHhIiJjKkLlMmNnOoPpQqRrSsTtUuVvWwXxYyZz0123456789".toCharArray(); private static char[] ch = "abcdefghijklmnopqrstuvwxyz0123456789".toCharArray(); public void doGet(HttpServletRequest request, HttpServletResponse response) throws ServletException, IOException { this.doPost(request, response); } // 生成数字和字母的验证码 public void doPost(HttpServletRequest request, HttpServletResponse response) throws ServletException, IOException { processRequest(request, response); } protected void processRequest(HttpServletRequest request, HttpServletResponse response) throws ServletException, IOException { response.setContentType("image/jpeg"); response.setHeader("Pragma", "No-cache"); response.setHeader("Cache-Control", "no-cache"); response.setDateHeader("Expires", 0); // 在内存中创建图象 BufferedImage image = new BufferedImage(width, height, BufferedImage.TYPE_INT_RGB); // 获取图形上下文 Graphics g = image.getGraphics(); // 生成随机类 Random random = new Random(); // 设定背景色 g.setColor(getRandColor(200, 250)); g.fillRect(0, 0, width, height); // 设定字体 g.setFont(new Font("Times New Roman", Font.PLAIN, 18)); // 画边框 // g.setColor(new Color()); // g.drawRect(0,0,width-1,height-1); // 随机产生155条干扰线,使图象中的认证码不易被其它程序探测到 g.setColor(getRandColor(160, 200)); for (int i = 0; i < 155; i++) { int x = random.nextInt(width); int y = random.nextInt(height); int xl = random.nextInt(12); int yl = random.nextInt(12); g.drawLine(x, y, x + xl, y + yl); } // 取随机产生的认证码(4位数字) StringBuffer sb = new StringBuffer(); int index, len = ch.length; for (int i = 0; i < 4; i++) { index = random.nextInt(len); g.setColor(new Color(random.nextInt(88), random.nextInt(188), random.nextInt(255))); g.setFont(new Font("Arial", Font.ITALIC, 28));// 输出的字体和大小 g.drawString("" + ch[index], (i * 15) + 6, 26);// 写什么数字,在图片的什么位置画 sb.append(ch[index]); } // 将认证码存入SESSION request.getSession().setAttribute("piccode", sb.toString()); request.getSession().setAttribute(request.getSession().getId(), sb.toString()); // 图象生效 g.dispose(); ServletOutputStream responseOutputStream = response.getOutputStream(); // 输出图象到页面 ImageIO.write(image, "JPEG", responseOutputStream); // 以下关闭输入流! responseOutputStream.flush(); responseOutputStream.close(); } protected void ValidateCode(HttpServletRequest request, HttpServletResponse response) throws ServletException, IOException { // 在内存中创建图象 BufferedImage img = new BufferedImage(width, height, BufferedImage.TYPE_INT_RGB); // 得到该图片的绘图对象 Graphics g = img.getGraphics(); Random r = new Random(); Color c = new Color(200, 150, 255); g.setColor(c); // 填充整个图片的颜色 g.fillRect(0, 0, width, height); // 向图片中输出数字和字母 StringBuffer sb = new StringBuffer(); int index, len = ch.length; for (int i = 0; i < 4; i++) { index = r.nextInt(len); g .setColor(new Color(r.nextInt(88), r.nextInt(188), r .nextInt(255))); g.setFont(new Font("Arial", Font.BOLD | Font.ITALIC, 22));// 输出的字体和大小 g.drawString("" + ch[index], (i * 15) + 6, 18);// 写什么数字,在图片的什么位置画 sb.append(ch[index]); } request.getSession().setAttribute("piccode", sb.toString()); ServletOutputStream responseOutputStream = response.getOutputStream(); ImageIO.write(img, "JPG", responseOutputStream); responseOutputStream.flush(); responseOutputStream.close(); } Color getRandColor(int fc, int bc) {// 给定范围获得随机颜色 Random random = new Random(); if (fc > 255) fc = 255; if (bc > 255) bc = 255; int r = fc + random.nextInt(bc - fc); int g = fc + random.nextInt(bc - fc); int b = fc + random.nextInt(bc - fc); return new Color(r, g, b); } /** * 得到某一个类的路径 * * @param name * @return */ public static String getPath(Class name) { String strResult = null; if (System.getProperty("os.name").toLowerCase().indexOf("window") > -1) { strResult = name.getResource("/").toString().replace("file:/", "") .replace("%20", " "); } else { strResult = name.getResource("/").toString().replace("file:", "") .replace("%20", " "); } return strResult; }}

第二种 中文字符

package com.myFirstSpring.util; import java.awt.Color;import java.awt.Font;import java.awt.Graphics;import java.awt.Graphics2D;import java.awt.image.BufferedImage;import java.io.IOException;import java.util.Random; import javax.imageio.ImageIO;import javax.servlet.ServletException;import javax.servlet.http.HttpServlet;import javax.servlet.http.HttpServletRequest;import javax.servlet.http.HttpServletResponse; /** * 生成验证码(汉字) * * @author 冰雨凌風 * */public class ValidateCodeUtils_zh extends HttpServlet { /** * */ private static final long serialVersionUID = 6699312412706395069L; public static final int WIDTH = 120; public static final int HEIGHT = 30; public void doGet(HttpServletRequest request, HttpServletResponse response) throws ServletException, IOException { this.doPost(request, response); } public void doPost(HttpServletRequest request, HttpServletResponse response) throws ServletException, IOException { request.setCharacterEncoding("utf-8"); response.setContentType("text/html;charset=utf-8"); // 创建缓存 BufferedImage bi = new BufferedImage(WIDTH, HEIGHT, BufferedImage.TYPE_INT_RGB); // 获得画布 Graphics g = bi.getGraphics(); // 设置背影色 setBackGround(g); // 设置边框 setBorder(g); // 画干扰线 drawRandomLine(g); // 写随机数 String random = drawRandomNum((Graphics2D) g); // 将随机汉字存在session中 request.getSession().setAttribute("piccode", random); // 将图形写给浏览器 response.setContentType("image/jpeg"); // 发头控制浏览器不要缓存 response.setDateHeader("expries", -1); response.setHeader("Cache-Control", "no-cache"); response.setHeader("Pragma", "no-cache"); // 将图片写给浏览器 ImageIO.write(bi, "jpg", response.getOutputStream()); } /** * 设置背景色 * * @param g */ private void setBackGround(Graphics g) { // 设置颜色 g.setColor(Color.WHITE); // 填充区域 g.fillRect(0, 0, WIDTH, HEIGHT); } /** * 设置边框 * * @param g */ private void setBorder(Graphics g) { // 设置边框颜色 g.setColor(Color.BLUE); // 边框区域 g.drawRect(1, 1, WIDTH - 2, HEIGHT - 2); } /** * 画随机线条 * * @param g */ private void drawRandomLine(Graphics g) { // 设置颜色 g.setColor(Color.GREEN); // 设置线条个数并画线 for (int i = 0; i < 5; i++) { int x1 = new Random().nextInt(WIDTH); int y1 = new Random().nextInt(HEIGHT); int x2 = new Random().nextInt(WIDTH); int y2 = new Random().nextInt(HEIGHT); g.drawLine(x1, y1, x2, y2); } } /** * 画随机汉字 * * @param g * @return */ private String drawRandomNum(Graphics2D g) { StringBuffer sb = new StringBuffer(); // 设置颜色 g.setColor(Color.RED); // 设置字体 g.setFont(new Font("宋体", Font.BOLD, 20)); // 准备常用汉字集 String base = "\u7684\u4e00\u4e86\u662f\u6211\u4e0d\u5728\u4eba\u4eec\u6709\u6765\u4ed6\u8fd9\u4e0a\u7740\u4e2a\u5730\u5230\u5927\u91cc\u8bf4\u5c31\u53bb\u5b50\u5f97\u4e5f\u548c\u90a3\u8981\u4e0b\u770b\u5929\u65f6\u8fc7\u51fa\u5c0f\u4e48\u8d77\u4f60\u90fd\u628a\u597d\u8fd8\u591a\u6ca1\u4e3a\u53c8\u53ef\u5bb6\u5b66\u53ea\u4ee5\u4e3b\u4f1a\u6837\u5e74\u60f3\u751f\u540c\u8001\u4e2d\u5341\u4ece\u81ea\u9762\u524d\u5934\u9053\u5b83\u540e\u7136\u8d70\u5f88\u50cf\u89c1\u4e24\u7528\u5979\u56fd\u52a8\u8fdb\u6210\u56de\u4ec0\u8fb9\u4f5c\u5bf9\u5f00\u800c\u5df1\u4e9b\u73b0\u5c71\u6c11\u5019\u7ecf\u53d1\u5de5\u5411\u4e8b\u547d\u7ed9\u957f\u6c34\u51e0\u4e49\u4e09\u58f0\u4e8e\u9ad8\u624b\u77e5\u7406\u773c\u5fd7\u70b9\u5fc3\u6218\u4e8c\u95ee\u4f46\u8eab\u65b9\u5b9e\u5403\u505a\u53eb\u5f53\u4f4f\u542c\u9769\u6253\u5462\u771f\u5168\u624d\u56db\u5df2\u6240\u654c\u4e4b\u6700\u5149\u4ea7\u60c5\u8def\u5206\u603b\u6761\u767d\u8bdd\u4e1c\u5e2d\u6b21\u4eb2\u5982\u88ab\u82b1\u53e3\u653e\u513f\u5e38\u6c14\u4e94\u7b2c\u4f7f\u5199\u519b\u5427\u6587\u8fd0\u518d\u679c\u600e\u5b9a\u8bb8\u5feb\u660e\u884c\u56e0\u522b\u98de\u5916\u6811\u7269\u6d3b\u90e8\u95e8\u65e0\u5f80\u8239\u671b\u65b0\u5e26\u961f\u5148\u529b\u5b8c\u5374\u7ad9\u4ee3\u5458\u673a\u66f4\u4e5d\u60a8\u6bcf\u98ce\u7ea7\u8ddf\u7b11\u554a\u5b69\u4e07\u5c11\u76f4\u610f\u591c\u6bd4\u9636\u8fde\u8f66\u91cd\u4fbf\u6597\u9a6c\u54ea\u5316\u592a\u6307\u53d8\u793e\u4f3c\u58eb\u8005\u5e72\u77f3\u6ee1\u65e5\u51b3\u767e\u539f\u62ff\u7fa4\u7a76\u5404\u516d\u672c\u601d\u89e3\u7acb\u6cb3\u6751\u516b\u96be\u65e9\u8bba\u5417\u6839\u5171\u8ba9\u76f8\u7814\u4eca\u5176\u4e66\u5750\u63a5\u5e94\u5173\u4fe1\u89c9\u6b65\u53cd\u5904\u8bb0\u5c06\u5343\u627e\u4e89\u9886\u6216\u5e08\u7ed3\u5757\u8dd1\u8c01\u8349\u8d8a\u5b57\u52a0\u811a\u7d27\u7231\u7b49\u4e60\u9635\u6015\u6708\u9752\u534a\u706b\u6cd5\u9898\u5efa\u8d76\u4f4d\u5531\u6d77\u4e03\u5973\u4efb\u4ef6\u611f\u51c6\u5f20\u56e2\u5c4b\u79bb\u8272\u8138\u7247\u79d1\u5012\u775b\u5229\u4e16\u521a\u4e14\u7531\u9001\u5207\u661f\u5bfc\u665a\u8868\u591f\u6574\u8ba4\u54cd\u96ea\u6d41\u672a\u573a\u8be5\u5e76\u5e95\u6df1\u523b\u5e73\u4f1f\u5fd9\u63d0\u786e\u8fd1\u4eae\u8f7b\u8bb2\u519c\u53e4\u9ed1\u544a\u754c\u62c9\u540d\u5440\u571f\u6e05\u9633\u7167\u529e\u53f2\u6539\u5386\u8f6c\u753b\u9020\u5634\u6b64\u6cbb\u5317\u5fc5\u670d\u96e8\u7a7f\u5185\u8bc6\u9a8c\u4f20\u4e1a\u83dc\u722c\u7761\u5174\u5f62\u91cf\u54b1\u89c2\u82e6\u4f53\u4f17\u901a\u51b2\u5408\u7834\u53cb\u5ea6\u672f\u996d\u516c\u65c1\u623f\u6781\u5357\u67aa\u8bfb\u6c99\u5c81\u7ebf\u91ce\u575a\u7a7a\u6536\u7b97\u81f3\u653f\u57ce\u52b3\u843d\u94b1\u7279\u56f4\u5f1f\u80dc\u6559\u70ed\u5c55\u5305\u6b4c\u7c7b\u6e10\u5f3a\u6570\u4e61\u547c\u6027\u97f3\u7b54\u54e5\u9645\u65e7\u795e\u5ea7\u7ae0\u5e2e\u5566\u53d7\u7cfb\u4ee4\u8df3\u975e\u4f55\u725b\u53d6\u5165\u5cb8\u6562\u6389\u5ffd\u79cd\u88c5\u9876\u6025\u6797\u505c\u606f\u53e5\u533a\u8863\u822c\u62a5\u53f6\u538b\u6162\u53d4\u80cc\u7ec6"; int x = 5; // 控制字数 for (int i = 0; i < 4; i++) { // 设置字体旋转角度 int degree = new Random().nextInt() % 30; // 截取汉字 String ch = base.charAt(new Random().nextInt(base.length())) + ""; sb.append(ch); // 正向角度 g.rotate(degree * Math.PI / 180, x, 20); g.drawString(ch, x, 20); // 反向角度 g.rotate(-degree * Math.PI / 180, x, 20); x += 30; } return sb.toString(); }}

第三种 加减乘除方式

package com.myFirstSpring.util; import java.awt.Color;import java.awt.Font;import java.awt.Graphics;import java.awt.image.BufferedImage;import java.io.IOException;import java.util.Random; import javax.imageio.ImageIO;import javax.servlet.ServletException;import javax.servlet.ServletOutputStream;import javax.servlet.http.HttpServlet;import javax.servlet.http.HttpServletRequest;import javax.servlet.http.HttpServletResponse; /** * * @Description 生成验证码(加减乘) * @author waa * @version V1.0, 日期2011-7-4 */public class ValidateCodeUtils_algorithm extends HttpServlet { private static final long serialVersionUID = -1409007752285164213L; private static int width = 75; private static int height = 35; // private static char[] ch = // "AaBbCcDdEeFfGgHhIiJjKkLlMmNnOoPpQqRrSsTtUuVvWwXxYyZz0123456789".toCharArray(); private static char[] ch = "0123456789".toCharArray(); private static char[] sf = "+-x".toCharArray(); public void doGet(HttpServletRequest request, HttpServletResponse response) throws ServletException, IOException { this.doPost(request, response); } // 生成数字和字母的验证码 public void doPost(HttpServletRequest request, HttpServletResponse response) throws ServletException, IOException { processRequest(request, response); } protected void processRequest(HttpServletRequest request, HttpServletResponse response) throws ServletException, IOException { response.setContentType("image/jpeg"); response.setHeader("Pragma", "No-cache"); response.setHeader("Cache-Control", "no-cache"); response.setDateHeader("Expires", 0); // 在内存中创建图象 BufferedImage image = new BufferedImage(width, height, BufferedImage.TYPE_INT_RGB); // 获取图形上下文 Graphics g = image.getGraphics(); // 生成随机类 Random random = new Random(); // 设定背景色 g.setColor(getRandColor(200, 250)); g.fillRect(0, 0, width, height); // 设定字体 g.setFont(new Font("Times New Roman", Font.PLAIN, 18)); // 画边框 // g.setColor(new Color()); // g.drawRect(0,0,width-1,height-1); // 随机产生155条干扰线,使图象中的认证码不易被其它程序探测到 g.setColor(getRandColor(160, 200)); for (int i = 0; i < 155; i++) { int x = random.nextInt(width); int y = random.nextInt(height); int xl = random.nextInt(12); int yl = random.nextInt(12); g.drawLine(x, y, x + xl, y + yl); } // 取随机产生的认证码(4位数字) StringBuffer sb = new StringBuffer(); int index, len = ch.length; index = random.nextInt(len); g.setColor(new Color(random.nextInt(88), random.nextInt(188), random.nextInt(255))); g.setFont(new Font("Arial", Font.ITALIC, 20));// 输出的字体和大小 g.drawString("" + ch[index], (0 * 15), 26);// 写什么数字,在图片的什么位置画 sb.append(ch[index]); int index1, len1 = sf.length; index1 = random.nextInt(len1); g.setColor(new Color(random.nextInt(88), random.nextInt(188), random.nextInt(255))); g.setFont(new Font("Arial", Font.ITALIC, 20));// 输出的字体和大小 g.drawString("" + sf[index1], (1 * 15), 26);// 写什么数字,在图片的什么位置画 sb.append(sf[index1]); int index2, len2 = ch.length; index2 = random.nextInt(len2); g.setColor(new Color(random.nextInt(88), random.nextInt(188), random.nextInt(255))); g.setFont(new Font("Arial", Font.ITALIC, 20));// 输出的字体和大小 if(String.valueOf(sf[index1]).equals("-")){ if(Integer.parseInt(String.valueOf(ch[index])) < Integer.parseInt(String.valueOf(ch[index2]))){ index2 = index; } } g.drawString("" + ch[index2], (2 * 15) , 26);// 写什么数字,在图片的什么位置画 sb.append(ch[index2]); g.setColor(new Color(random.nextInt(88), random.nextInt(188), random.nextInt(255))); g.setFont(new Font("Arial", Font.ITALIC, 20));// 输出的字体和大小 g.drawString("=", (3 * 15) , 26);// 写什么数字,在图片的什么位置画 sb.append("="); g.setColor(new Color(random.nextInt(88), random.nextInt(188), random.nextInt(255))); g.setFont(new Font("Arial", Font.ITALIC, 20));// 输出的字体和大小 g.drawString("?", (4 * 15) , 26);// 写什么数字,在图片的什么位置画 sb.append("?"); g.drawLine(5, 3, 60, 35); // 将认证码存入SESSION int jg = 0; if(String.valueOf(sf[index1]).equals("+")){ jg = Integer.parseInt(String.valueOf(ch[index])) + Integer.parseInt(String.valueOf(ch[index2])); } if(String.valueOf(sf[index1]).equals("-")){ jg = Integer.parseInt(String.valueOf(ch[index])) - Integer.parseInt(String.valueOf(ch[index2])); } if(String.valueOf(sf[index1]).equals("x")){ jg = Integer.parseInt(String.valueOf(ch[index])) * Integer.parseInt(String.valueOf(ch[index2])); } request.getSession().setAttribute("piccode", String.valueOf(jg)); request.getSession().setAttribute(request.getSession().getId(), sb.toString()); // 图象生效 g.dispose(); ServletOutputStream responseOutputStream = response.getOutputStream(); // 输出图象到页面 ImageIO.write(image, "JPEG", responseOutputStream); // 以下关闭输入流! responseOutputStream.flush(); responseOutputStream.close(); } protected void ValidateCode(HttpServletRequest request, HttpServletResponse response) throws ServletException, IOException { // 在内存中创建图象 BufferedImage img = new BufferedImage(width, height, BufferedImage.TYPE_INT_RGB); // 得到该图片的绘图对象 Graphics g = img.getGraphics(); Random r = new Random(); Color c = new Color(200, 150, 255); g.setColor(c); // 填充整个图片的颜色 g.fillRect(0, 0, width, height); // 向图片中输出数字和字母 StringBuffer sb = new StringBuffer(); int index, len = ch.length; for (int i = 0; i < 4; i++) { index = r.nextInt(len); g .setColor(new Color(r.nextInt(88), r.nextInt(188), r .nextInt(255))); g.setFont(new Font("Arial", Font.BOLD | Font.ITALIC, 22));// 输出的字体和大小 g.drawString("" + ch[index], (i * 15) + 6, 18);// 写什么数字,在图片的什么位置画 sb.append(ch[index]); } request.getSession().setAttribute("piccode", sb.toString()); ServletOutputStream responseOutputStream = response.getOutputStream(); ImageIO.write(img, "JPG", responseOutputStream); responseOutputStream.flush(); responseOutputStream.close(); } Color getRandColor(int fc, int bc) {// 给定范围获得随机颜色 Random random = new Random(); if (fc > 255) fc = 255; if (bc > 255) bc = 255; int r = fc + random.nextInt(bc - fc); int g = fc + random.nextInt(bc - fc); int b = fc + random.nextInt(bc - fc); return new Color(r, g, b); } /** * 得到某一个类的路径 * * @param name * @return */ public static String getPath(Class name) { String strResult = null; if (System.getProperty("os.name").toLowerCase().indexOf("window") > -1) { strResult = name.getResource("/").toString().replace("file:/", "") .replace("%20", " "); } else { strResult = name.getResource("/").toString().replace("file:", "") .replace("%20", " "); } return strResult; }}

直接复制代码可以测试生成的方法

前段调用方法如下所示

function flushVerifyImg() { var timenow = new Date().getTime(); $("#VerifyImg").attr("src", '/servlet/Validate?d=' + timenow); return false;}

然后是配置文件 在web.xml配置如下

<servlet> <servlet-name>Validate</servlet-name> <servlet-class>com.myFirstSpring.util.ValidateCodeUtils</servlet-class> </servlet> <servlet-mapping> <servlet-name>Validate</servlet-name> <url-pattern>/servlet/Validate</url-pattern> </servlet-mapping>

其中重要的是一个你的文件路径需要配置正确 就是com.myFirstSpring.util.ValidateCodeUtils

在放一下我的项目配置文件

<?xml version="1.0" encoding="UTF-8"?><web-app xmlns:xsi="http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema-instance" xmlns="http://java.sun.com/xml/ns/javaee" xmlns:web="http://java.sun.com/xml/ns/javaee/web-app_2_5.xsd" xsi:schemaLocation="http://java.sun.com/xml/ns/javaee http://java.sun.com/xml/ns/javaee/web-app_2_5.xsd" version="2.5"> <display-name>CoBiker</display-name> <filter> <filter-name>encodingFilter</filter-name> <filter-class>org.springframework.web.filter.CharacterEncodingFilter</filter-class> <init-param> <param-name>encoding</param-name> <param-value>UTF-8</param-value> </init-param> <init-param> <param-name>forceEncoding</param-name> <param-value>true</param-value> </init-param> </filter> <filter-mapping> <filter-name>encodingFilter</filter-name> <url-pattern>*</url-pattern> </filter-mapping> <listener> <listener-class>org.springframework.web.context.ContextLoaderListener</listener-class> </listener> <servlet> <servlet-name>action</servlet-name> <servlet-class>org.springframework.web.servlet.DispatcherServlet</servlet-class> <load-on-startup>1</load-on-startup> </servlet> <servlet-mapping> <servlet-name>action</servlet-name> <url-pattern>/</url-pattern> </servlet-mapping> <servlet> <servlet-name>Validate</servlet-name> <servlet-class>com.myFirstSpring.util.ValidateCodeUtils</servlet-class> </servlet> <servlet-mapping> <servlet-name>Validate</servlet-name> <url-pattern>/servlet/Validate</url-pattern> </servlet-mapping> <welcome-file-list> <welcome-file>index.ftl</welcome-file> </welcome-file-list> <error-page> <error-code>404</error-code> <location>/WEB-INF/view/404.ftl</location> <!-- 1 错误页面跳转 本地项目因为是8080访问所以会报错 /WEB-INF/view/error.ftl --> <!-- 2还可以通过控制器来实现跳转 /404 --> </error-page> <error-page> <error-code>500</error-code> <location>/index.ftl</location> </error-page> <login-config> <auth-method>BASIC</auth-method> </login-config></web-app>

以上就是本文的全部内容,希望对大家的学习有所帮助,也希望大家多多支持我们。

本文标题: Java 生成图片验证码3种方法(字母、加减乘除、中文)

以上就上有关Java生成图片验证码3种方法(字母、加减乘除、中文)的全部内容,学步园全面介绍编程技术、操作系统、数据库、web前端技术等内容。

抱歉!评论已关闭.